Zen Templates Development Journal, Part 2

Having my concept complete (see Part 0) and my simple test case working (see Part 1), I was ready to start on my moderate-complexity test case. This would use more features than the simple test case, and more pages. I really didn't want to have to build a complete site just for the proof of concept, so I decided to use an existing site, and I happened to have one handy: rogue-technologies.com.

The site is currently built in HTML5, using server-side includes for all of the content that remains the same between pages. It seemed like a pretty straightforward process to convert this to my template engine, so I got to work: I started with one page (the home page), and turned it into the master template. I took all of the include directives and replaced them with the content they were including. I replaced all of the variable references with model references using injection or substitution. I ID'd all the elements in the master template that would need to be replaced by child templates. I then made another copy of the homepage, and set it up to derive from the master template.

I didn't want to convert the site to use servlets, since it wasn't really a dynamic site; I just wanted to be able to generate usable HTML from my template files. So I created a new class that would walk a directory, parse the templates, and write the output to files in an output directory. Initially, it set up the model data statically by hand at the start of execution.

All was well, but I needed a way for the child template to add elements to the page, rather than just replacing elements from the parent template. I came up with the idea of appending elements, using a data attribute data-z-append="before:" or "after:", to cause an element to be appended to the page either before or after the element from the parent with the specified ID. This worked perfectly, allowing me to add the Google Webmaster Tools meta tag to the homepage.

With this done, I set to work converting the remaining pages. Most of the pages were pretty straightforward, being handled just like the homepage; I dumped the SSI directives, added some appropriate IDs and classes, and all was well. However, the software pages presented some challenges. For one thing, they used a different footer than the rest of the site. It was time to put nested derivation to the test.

I created a software page template, which derived from the master template, that appended the additional footer content. I then had the software pages derive from this template, instead of deriving from the master template and - by some stroke of luck - it worked perfectly on the first try. I wasn't out of the woods yet, though.

The software pages also used SSI directives to dynamically insert the file size for downloadable files next to the links to download them. I wasn't going to reimplement this functionality, however, I was prepared to replace these directives with file size data stored in the model. But I wanted to keep the model data organized, so I needed to support nesting. The software pages also used include directives to include a Google+ widget on the pages; this couldn't be added to the template, as it was embedded in the body content, so it seemed like a perfect case for snippets - which meant I needed to implement snippet support.

Snippet support was pretty easy - find the data attribute, look up the snippet file, parse it as an HTML fragment, and replace the placeholder element with the snippet. Easy to implement, worked pretty well.

Nested properties I thought would be a breeze, as I had assumed it was natively supported by StrSubstitutor. Unfortunately it wasn't, so I had to write my own StrLookup. I decided that, since I was already doing some complex property lookups for injection, I'd build a unified model lookup class that could act as my StrLookup and could be used elsewhere. I wanted nested scope support as well, for my project list: each project had an entry in the model, that consisted of a name, latest version, etc. I wanted the engine to iterate this list, and for each entry, rather than replacing the entire content of the element with the text value of the model entry, I wanted it to find sub-elements and replace each with an appropriate property of the model entry. This meant I needed nested scoping support.

I implemented this using a scope stack and a recursive lookup. Basically, every time a nested scope was entered (e.g., content injection using an object or map, or iteration over a list), I would push the current scope onto the stack. When the nested scope was exited (i.e., the end of the element that added the scope), I popped the scope off. When iterating a loop, at the start of the iteration, I'd push the current index, and at the end of the iteration, I'd pop it back off.

This turned out to be very complex to implement, but after some trial and error, I got it working correctly. I then re-tested against my simple test case, having to fix a couple of minor defects introduced there with the new changes. But, at last, both my simple and moderate test cases were working.

I didn't like the static creation of model data - not very flexible at all - so I decided to swap it out with JSON processing. This introduced a couple of minor bugs, but it wasn't all that difficult to get it all working. The main downside was that it added several additional dependencies, and dependency management was getting more difficult. I wasn't too concerned on that front though, since I was already planning for the real product to use Maven for dependency tracking; I was just beginning to wish I had used Maven for the prototype as well. Oh well, a lesson for next time. For now, I was ready for my complex test case - I just had to decide what to use.
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